Batasan Empat Tradisi Utama Geografi – Adalah Menurut Preston James menjajal untuk memecahkan pertanyaan apakah geografi dengan memberikan batasan geografi menjadi empat tradisi utama, yaitu:
The spatial tradition
Geographers have long been concerned with mapping and the spatial arrangement of things. Some geographers were developing statistical methods to improve both the description and analysis of such spatial patterns (James). Because this demam isu was not without its critics, the James article is often seen as a fencemending effort within the discipline.
The area studies tradition
Geographers such as Reclus and Humboldt were famous for their exhaustive descriptions of places. Even today, many geographers develop an expertise in the study of one or two regions. Typically, geographers will learn the language or langauges spoken in the region being studied and they will develop an understanding of both the natural physical features and of the human activities and patterns. The goal is to become an expert on the region as it is and to study specific problems or questions about the region.
The man-land tradition
Beginning with George Perkins Marsh in the middle of the nineteenth century, geographers have sought to understand how the natural environment either determines or constrains human behavior and how humans, in turn, modify the physical world around them. Given the inherent sexism of this title, most geographers would now use the term “human-environment” to describe this tradition.
The Earth sciences tradition
Many geography programs in the United States emerged from geology departments, and the connection between the disciplines remains strong. Most geographers — even if they focus on human geography — receive some training in such physical geography areas landforms, climate, soils, and the distribution of plants.
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